- Methodology article
- Open Access
An optimised clearing protocol for the quantitative assessment of sub-epidermal ovule tissues within whole cereal pistils
© The Author(s) 2017
- Received: 29 June 2017
- Accepted: 8 August 2017
- Published: 15 August 2017
Seed development in the angiosperms requires the production of a female gametophyte (embryo sac) within the ovule. Many aspects of female reproductive development in cereal crops are yet to be described, largely due to the technical difficulty in obtaining phenotypic information at the cellular or sub-cellular level. Hoyer’s solution is currently well established as a solution for clearing thin tissues samples, such as sections or whole tissues of bryophytes, mycorrhizal fungi, and small model organisms (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana).
Here we report a Hoyer’s solution-based clearing method to facilitate clearing of the whole barley pistil, with high reproducibility. The clearing process takes 10 days from fixation to visualisation, whereupon tissue is sufficiently clear to obtain multiple phenotypic measurements from sub-epidermal tissues and cells within the ovule.
Visualisation of cereal ovules that have not been dissected from the pistil allows an unprecedented capability to collect quantitative morphological information from the developing ovule, integument, nucellus and embryo sac. This will enable comparisons with genetic data to reveal the contribution of pre-fertilisation ovule tissues towards downstream seed development.
- Hoyer’s solution
Sustaining food production above the level of food demand is a growing global challenge. Estimates suggest that crop yields will need to increase by 25–75% to ensure sufficient food production for the world’s population in 2050 . Cereal crop production is highly reliant upon development of flowers. In particular, the single ovule within each flower is essential, as it is the site of gametogenesis, fertilisation and downstream grain development. Environmental events such as drought, high temperatures and frost are known to disrupt flower and seed development, causing a reduction in both grain number and grain quality, thus compromising yield [2–4].
Our understanding of floral development and seed formation in flowering plants has been dramatically expanded by research in diverse model dicots, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Hieracium sp., and Torenia fournieri [5–7]. The formation of ovule primordia, the differentiation of a megaspore mother cell from somatic precursors and the production and fertilisation of an embryo sac have been described in intimate molecular, genetic and morphological detail . Research in rice, maize, wheat and barley has contributed significant molecular and genetic knowledge of monocot inflorescence and flower development [9–12]. Despite this, remarkably little is known about ovule development in these important cereal species, particularly in regards to how different tissues contribute to eventual seed size, composition and shape. Studies have shown that ovary size is an important component of floret and grain survival , but the contribution of constituent tissues remains unclear. Determining the role of these tissues for downstream seed development requires robust, high throughput methods for quantitative two and three-dimensional analysis of developing ovule tissues, such that phenotypic information can be extracted and assessed.
Observation of the internal morphology of cleared floral organs is a powerful tool that allows examination of phenotypic alterations in internal structures following genetic or environmental modification, without the need for thin-sectioning. Chemical treatment to clear small tissue samples is a well-established practice, with reagents ranging from the more traditional methyl salicylate, lactic acid and chloral hydrate based solutions [14–16] to recently developed methods such as ClearSee [17, 18] and PEA-CLARITY . Despite this, observation of female reproductive tissues in cereal monocots remains technically challenging, contributing to a lack of specific genetic and mechanistic information about gametogenesis and ovule development. Two key technical challenges include the relatively large size of the pistils, which are sufficiently thick to remain opaque when treated using previously published clearing protocols designed for substantially smaller tissues (e.g. ), and the ease by which the physical structure of the ovule may be damaged during the process of dissection.
Here we report a robust method for clearing whole cereal pistils with Hoyer’s Solution , allowing visualisation of wheat and barley ovule ultrastructure in a manner that preserves the physical integrity of internal structures. Experimental variation of incubation time offers flexibility in sample preparation, yielding exceptionally clear tissue after a minimum of 10 days post tissue collection and up to a maximum of 16 weeks. The utility of the method was demonstrated by using optical sections through cleared pistils to measure the dimensions of component tissues, enabling phenotypic variation in ovule development to be captured within a panel of barley cultivars.
Chloral Hydrate C-IV (#15307, Sigma-Aldrich, Australia)
Ethanol (#EA043-2.5L, Chem-Supply, Australia)
Formaldehyde (#809, Ajax Finechem, Australia)
Glacial Acetic Acid (#2335, Ajax Finechem, Australia)
Glycerol (#242, Ajax Finechem, Australia)
FAA fixative  50% Ethanol (v/v), 10% Formaldehyde (37% solution, also called formalin), 5% glacial acetic acid (v/v), and 35% sterile water (v/v).
Ethanol Series 100% analytical grade EtOH diluted in water to a concentration of 70, 80 and 90%, and 100% EtOH filtered through a molecular sieve.
Chloral hydrate solution 250 g chloral hydrate dissolved in 100 mL sterile water
Hoyer’s Solution  A 3.0:0.8:0.2 mixture of chloral hydrate:water:glycerol.
Standard laboratory 4 °C refrigerator
Compound microscope with differential contrast (DIC) and Nomarski filter for a ×10, ×20 and/or ×40 objective
Computer and free ZEN 2011 Blue (Zeiss) LE software
Ventilated microscopy slide box
Small exhaust fan
Fine point tweezers (Dumont #5, Emgrid, Australia)
Liquid scintillation vials (#Z190535, SigmaAldrich, Australia)
Polysine Slides (#P4981, ThermoFisher Scientific, Australia)
22 × 40 mm Cover slips (#G422, ProSciTech, Australia)
Microflex 93-260 chemical resistant gloves (Ansell, Australia)
Plant growth and staging
Sample collection and fixation (timing: 10 min per tiller + overnight fixation)
Whole pistils were removed from anthesis barley flowers by reaching inside the flower with fine tweezers and pinching the base of the pistil as low as possible (Fig. 1c). Care was taken to avoid tearing the base of the pistil where the ovule is located. Lodicules were gently removed from the outside of the pistil before placing it in a flat bottomed glass scintillation vial containing 2 mL of ice cold FAA fixative.
Sample dehydration (timing: 4 h + overnight dehydration + 4 to 120 days incubation)
Within 1 week of fixation barley pistils were dehydrated through an ethanol series and placed into Hoyer’s solution (Fig. 1d), using fine-tipped glass pipettes for each fluid exchange to minimise the possibility of damage to tissue samples. The EtOH series comprised of 3 × 20 min washes at 70, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH at room temperature. Samples were left in the final 100% EtOH wash overnight before transfer into 4 mL Hoyer’s Solution. Samples must remain immersed in Hoyer’s solution at room temperature for a minimum of 4 days.
Samples may remain gently infiltrating in Hoyer’s solution for up to 16 weeks. Incubation for 4 weeks preserves tissue quality ideally for imaging of embryo sac features. Vials must be tightly sealed if samples are to be stored for longer than 2 weeks.
Sample mounting (timing: 15 min per slide + 2 to 4 days incubation)
Pistil tissues were manipulated with fine point tweezers and only held by the stigma in order to avoid crushing the ovary wall, ovule or surrounding tissue. Pistils were placed on flat Poly-Lys coated glass microscopy slides with either the dorsal or ventral side down so that both stigma of each pistil lay “flat”, rather than one stigma pointing up into the air (Fig. 1e). On each slide, pistils were placed equidistantly in a symmetrical arrangement and gently covered with a 22 × 40 mm coverslip. This arrangement allows the pistils to lie flat, ensures that variation in the relative viewing angle of the ovule is limited, and preserves the structural integrity of the ovule by preventing any damage to the tissue. Following sample arrangement and application of the cover slip, Hoyer’s Solution was pipetted underneath the cover slip onto the slide until all air was evacuated. Slides were then placed flat into a slide storage box that allowed limited ventilation and left in a fume cupboard for 4 days. Samples stored in a well ventilated location are cleared in 24–48 h depending upon the degree of ventilation. Conversely, samples stored after mounting with insufficient or no ventilation required up to 14 days to clear sufficiently to allow visualisation. Therefore, the degree of ventilation can be used to tailor the method to suit the user’s time constraints.
Samples incubated in 4 mL Hoyer’s Solution for longer than 2 weeks typically require less than 4 days to clear completely once mounted on the microscopy slide. For example, tissue stored in Hoyer’s Solution for 8–16 weeks generally does not require a period of ventilated storage longer than 12 h, and in some cases may be visualised immediately after mounting on slides.
Imaging (timing: 2 min per piece of tissue)
Pistils were imaged using differential contrast microscopy (DIC) at ×10 magnification with a Zeiss AxioImager M2 equipped with a Nomarski filter. For comprehensive data collection, optical slices spanning from the dorsal to ventral integument were taken as a z-stack image, using Zeiss ZEN 2011 (Blue) software.
Image analysis (timing: 10 to 15 min per image)
Data were analysed using the Zeiss ZEN 2011 (Blue) software package. Diverse measurements were taken including the 2-dimensional area (μm2) of each ovule tissue of interest, using the “contour (spline)” graphics tool to encircle the tissue, as well as the longitudinal and transverse dimensions (μm) of the same tissues, using the “line” graphics tool, and the antipodal nuclei were counted using the “event marker” graphics tool (Fig. 4c). Measurements were taken by following tissue boundaries for each given trait throughout optical sections and placing contour markers at the widest point. Two-dimensional ovule area was measured at the boundary between integument and nucellus. Embryo sac area was measured by tracing the outline of the structure from the micropyle to the chalazal region. The residual somatic cell (nucellus) area was measured by subtracting the embryo sac area from the whole ovule area.
Protocol timing optimisation
Protocol reagent optimisation
Clearing was not successful when ethanol dehydration was omitted and fixed samples were placed directly in Hoyer’s solution (Fig. 2c). Similarly, it was found that use of pure chloral hydrate solution rather than Hoyer’s solution yields unacceptably murky images (Fig. 2d), a factor of both the harsher degradation process when chloral hydrate is used in isolation and the lack of glycerol lowering the refractive index of the mounting fluid. Rough sample collection or handling of tissue throughout the dehydration process often resulted in structural disruption of the sample (Fig. 2e; Additional file 1: Fig. S1D). In addition, a Nomarski filter is essential for image acquisition (Fig. 2f).
Optimised method results
Sup-epidermal details of ovule development differ between cultivars
Phenotypic measurements of ovule tissues from nine H. vulgare cultivars
In this study a method for clearing tissue using Hoyer’s solution has been designed to suit cereal pistils such that internal structures of the ovule may be imaged with a high degree of clarity. Chloral hydrate-based clearing solutions have been successfully used in a wide range of biological fields [14, 22, 23], permitting a great deal of fundamental morphological and phenotypic information to be gathered. However, in our hands, previously reported protocols incorporating chloral hydrate that work well in Arabidopsis (e.g. [20, 24]) did not result in sufficient clearing of barley pistils to enable quantitative measurement of individual ovule tissues. Moreover, alternative methods that incorporate methyl salicylate [16, 25–27], lactic acid , sodium hypochlorite  or sodium hydroxide , lack the convenience and/or efficiency of our established Arabidopsis chloral hydrate-based method . Other recently reported clearing reagents such as ClearSEE , PEA-CLARITY  and FocusClear  are designed to clear tissue while preserving fluorescent labelling, but are either too expensive for high-throughput analysis or provide insufficient cellular resolution without additional staining.
Although the chloral hydrate-based method we describe is not compatible with visualisation of fluorescently-tagged proteins, it can be applied to diverse cereals, allows customisable incubation times, requires minimal tissue handling, and consistently provided excellent clearing and an ability to detect quantitative differences in tissue development in unstained cereal ovary samples. The Zeiss ZEN software used for image analysis is freely available for download and easy to use, while the FIJI software suite was used to extract similar results . In our pilot study of barley ovules at anthesis, 75 pistils were examined from 9 cultivars. The method was not specifically tested on a microscope containing a motorised 8-slide mounting frame or image stitching software, but such an approach would almost certainly be compatible, suggesting that image acquisition might be automated in future to allow for high-throughput data collection. Whether the scale of analysis required for germplasm screens in breeding populations can be achieved is currently unclear. However, the method is compatible with pre-breeding efforts to dissect pre-fertilisation traits that contribute to downstream seed development and morphology. Furthermore, we anticipate that the method will be particularly useful for the rapid characterisation of mutant phenotypes and transgenic plants that effect ovule development in barley and wheat.
A clearing technique typically used in the analysis of tissues from dicot model organisms was successfully adapted to clear the much larger cereal pistil. This paves the way for further interrogation of sup-epidermal features of ovule development in barley and other cereal crop species. The application of this method to a large panel of genetically distinct or genetically modified cereal varieties may assist the identification of novel genes controlling ovule phenotypes as well as components of seed yield and quality.
LGW collected and analysed the data. LGW and MRT designed and tested the method and jointly contributed to writing the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We wish to thank Rachel Burton and Caitlin Byrt for advice, Ryan Whitford for wheat samples and Plant Accelerator staff for maintaining plants. We also wish to acknowledge members of the Tucker Laboratory and the ARC Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls for useful discussions and suggestions.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Availability of data and materials
The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Consent for publication
All authors give consent for the data to be published.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
This work was supported by an Australian Research Council (ARC) (Grant No. FT140100780) Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls supplementary Ph.D. scholarship (LGW) and an ARC Future Fellowship (MRT).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Hunter MC, Smith RG, Schipanski ME, Atwood LW, Mortensen DA. Agriculture in 2050: recalibrating targets for sustainable intensification. Bioscience. 2017;67(4):386–91.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Onyemaobi I, Liu H, Siddique KHM, Yan G. Both male and female malfunction contributes to yield reduction under water stress during meiosis in bread wheat. Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:2071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saini HS, Westgate ME. Reproductive development in grain crops during drought. Adv Agron. 1999;68:59–96.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Thakur P, Kumar S, Malik JA, Berger JD, Nayyar H. Cold stress effects on reproductive development in grain crops: an overview. Environ Exp Bot. 2010;67(3):429–43.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Susaki D, Takeuchi H, Tsutsui H, Kurihara D, Higashiyama T. Live imaging and laser disruption reveal the dynamics and cell-cell communication during Torenia fournieri female gametophyte development. Plant Cell Physiol. 2015;56(5):1031–41.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tucker MR, Koltunow AMG. Traffic monitors at the cell periphery: the role of cell walls during early female reproductive cell differentiation in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2014;17:137–45.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang W-C, Sundaresan V. Genetics of gametophyte biogenesis in Arabidopsis. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2000;3(1):53–7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang W-C, Shi D-Q, Chen Y-H. Female gametophyte development in flowering plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2010;61:89–108.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boden SA, Weiss D, Ross JJ, Davies NW, Trevaskis B, Chandler PM, Swain SM. EARLY FLOWERING3 regulates flowering in spring barley by mediating gibberellin production and FLOWERING LOCUS T expression. Plant Cell. 2014;26(4):1557–69.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yoshida H, Nagato Y. Flower development in rice. J Exp Bot. 2011;62(14):4719–30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Youssef HM, Eggert K, Koppolu R, Alqudah AM, Poursarebani N, Fazeli A, Sakuma S, Tagiri A, Rutten T, Govind G. VRS2 regulates hormone-mediated inflorescence patterning in barley. Nat Genet. 2017;49(1):157–61.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang D, Yuan Z. Molecular control of grass inflorescence development. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2014;65:553–78.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guo Z, Schnurbusch T. Variation of floret fertility in hexaploid wheat revealed by tiller removal. J Exp Bot. 2015;66(19):5945–58.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Anderson LE. Hoyer’s solution as a rapid permanent mounting medium for bryophytes. Bryologist. 1954;57(3):242–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cunningham JL. A miracle mounting fluid for permanent whole-mounts of microfungi. Mycologia. 1972;64(4):906–11.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stelly DM, Peloquin S, Palmer RG, Crane CF. Mayer’s hemalum-methyl salicylate: a stain-clearing technique for observations within whole ovules. Stain Technol. 1984;59(3):155–61.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kurihara D, Mizuta Y, Sato Y, Higashiyama T. ClearSee: a rapid optical clearing reagent for whole-plant fluorescence imaging. Development. 2015;142(23):4168–79.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Timmers AC. Light microscopy of whole plant organs. J Microsc. 2016;263(2):165–70.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Palmer WM, Martin AP, Flynn JR, Reed SL, White RG, Furbank RT, Grof CP. PEA-CLARITY: 3D molecular imaging of whole plant organs. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13492.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Tucker MR, Okada T, Hu Y, Scholefield A, Taylor JM, Koltunow AM. Somatic small RNA pathways promote the mitotic events of megagametogenesis during female reproductive development in Arabidopsis. Development. 2012;139(8):1399–404.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young B, Sherwood R, Bashaw E. Cleared-pistil and thick-sectioning techniques for detecting aposporous apomixis in grasses. Can J Bot. 1979;57(15):1668–72.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Berleth T, Jurgens G. The role of the monopteros gene in organising the basal body region of the Arabidopsis embryo. Development. 1993;118(2):575–87.Google Scholar
- Enugutti B, Schneitz K. Microscopic analysis of Arabidopsis ovules. Flower Dev Methods Protocols. 2014;1110:253–61.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Franks RG. Histological analysis of the arabidopsis gynoecium and ovules using chloral hydrate clearing and differential interference contrast light microscopy. Oogenesis Methods Protoc. 2016;1457:1–7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Herr J Jr. Recent advances in clearing techniques for study of ovule and female gametophyte development. Angiosperm Pollen Ovules. 1992;149:154.Google Scholar
- Koltunow AM. Apomixis: embryo sacs and embryos formed without meiosis or fertilization in ovules. Plant Cell. 1993;5(10):1425–37.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ponitka A, Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina A. Cleared-ovule technique used for rapid access to early embryo development in Secale cereale x Zea mays crosses. Acta Biol Crac Ser Bot. 2004;46:133–7.Google Scholar
- Desfeux C, Clough SJ, Bent AF. Female reproductive tissues are the primary target of agrobacterium-mediated transformation by the arabidopsis floral-dip method. Plant Physiol. 2000;123(3):895–904.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Aditya J, Lewis J, Shirley NJ, Tan HT, Henderson M, Fincher GB, Burton RA, Mather DE, Tucker MR. The dynamics of cereal cyst nematode infection differ between susceptible and resistant barley cultivars and lead to changes in (1, 3; 1, 4)-β-glucan levels and HvCslF gene transcript abundance. New Phytol. 2015;207(1):135–47.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tomer E, Gottreich M, Gazit S. Defective ovules in avocado cultivars. J Am Soc Hortic Sci. 1976;101(5):620–3.Google Scholar
- Chung K, Wallace J, Kim S-Y, Kalyanasundaram S, Andalman AS, Davidson TJ, Mirzabekov JJ, Zalocusky KA, Mattis J, Denisin AK. Structural and molecular interrogation of intact biological systems. Nature. 2013;497(7449):332–7.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Schindelin J, Arganda-Carreras I, Frise E, Kaynig V, Longair M, Pietzsch T, Preibisch S, Rueden C, Saalfeld S, Schmid B. Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis. Nat Methods. 2012;9(7):676–82.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar