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Table 1 Comparative advantages of chloroplast genome over nuclear genome

From: Recent achievements obtained by chloroplast transformation

Chloroplast transformation Nuclear transformation
Reduced of gene dispersal in the environment due to maternal inheritance There is gene dispersal in the environment due to its parental nature
Multiple copy (high ploidy) of plastids results higher expression and accumulation of foreign proteins Nuclear is not in high ploidy results lower expression and accumulation of foreign proteins
Efficient multiple gene expression in single transformation event Efficiency of single transformation for multiple gene expression is very poor
Single promoter for expression of multi-subunit complex protein from polycistronic mRNAs Several promoters for each genes to drive expression of respective subunits
Simultaneous expression of several genes as it contains prokaryotic gene expression system Do not have prokaryotic expression system can’t undergo simultaneous expression of several genes
Homologous recombination avoids position effects and gene silencing Random integration presents position effects and gene silencing