Shoot and root biomass and water content in response to larval feeding in aeroponic culture. Shoot fresh weight (A) and dry weight (B) upon four days of larval feeding in comparison to control plants. (C) The percentage of water in the shoot tissue was significantly reduced by root herbivore damage. (D, E) Change in fresh and dry weight of roots in response to larval feeding. (F) The percentage of water weight remained the same. Values represent averages ± standard error. Asterisks above bars indicate significant differences (t-test, n = 12, P < 0.02).