Feeding damage and root consumption by Bradysia larvae on Arabidopsis grown in aeroponic culture. (A) Arabidopsis plants removed from clay substrate after four days of larval feeding in comparison to a non-feeding control. Root biomass was visibly reduced and aerial tissues were beginning to wilt. (B) Reduction of root mass after two and four days of herbivory. Values represent averages ± standard error. Letters indicate significant differences between days and treatments (one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD, n = 8, P < 0.0001).