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Table 4 The applications of thermal imaging in the study of fruit tree phenotypes

From: Phenotypic techniques and applications in fruit trees: a review

Applications Species Scale Spectral range Devices Detected parameters Evaluation parameters Advantages Limitations References
Indices Performance evaluation
Water stress Citrus orchard T 7.5–13 µm IR thermal camera Ψs Tc − Ta R2 = 0.42–0.76 Suitable for canopy temperature detection at the orchard level, reducing the deployment of a large number of temperature sensors High cost; vulnerable to shadow, uneven lighting and other environmental effects [108]
Pear orchard T 8–12 µm FLIR 400 gs Tc   [107]
Vineyard O 7.5–13 µm FLIR Tau II 320 Pn CWSI R = − 0.80 [113]
O 7.5–13 µm FLIR Tau II 320 Ψs CWSI R2 = 0.6931 [114]
gs R2 = 0.7061
Olive orchard O 7.5–13.5 µm Tau 2 324 Ψs CWSI R2 = 0.60–0.73 [115]
gs R2 = 0.91
T 7.5–13 µm ThermaCAM SC2000 Water status CWSI   [110]
T 8–14 µm Flir One Ψleaf Tc R2 = 0.81 [119]
CWSI R2 = 0.73
Almond orchard O 8–12 µm Miricle 307 Ψs CWSI R2 = 0.67 [111]
Tc − Ta R2 = 0.65
Peach orchard O 8–12 µm Miricle 307 Ψs CWSI R2 = 0.92 [111]
Tc − Ta R2 = 0.65
Apricot orchard O 8–12 µm Miricle 307 Ψs CWSI R2 = 0.64 [111]
Tc − Ta R2 = 0.65
Disease detection Apple orchard T 8–12 µm Varioscan 3201 ST Infected area of Scab disease MTD R2 = 0.85 [121]
Severity levels R2 = 0.71
Olive orchard O 8–12 µm Miricle 307 Severity levels of VW Tc -Ta R2 = 0.76 [91]
CWSI R2 = 0.83
O 7.5–13 µm FLIR SC655 Severity levels of VW Tc − Ta   [92]
Almond orchard O 7.5–13 µm FLIR SC655 Severity levels of Red leaf blotch Tc − Ta   [93]
  1. Note: In the “scale” column of the table, the fruit tree objects are divided into individual trees (T) and the whole orchard (O)