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Table 7 Comparison of GC–MS, LC–MS and NMR.

From: Understanding glycaemic control and current approaches for screening antidiabetic natural products from evidence-based medicinal plants

  GC–MS LC–MS NMR References
Sample preparation Extraction and chemical derivatisation Extraction Generally no sample preparation necessary [216]
Sample volume Split: < 1 µL
Splitless: 1 µL
5–20 µL Conventional: 5–550 µL
Microdroplet: ≤ 5 µL
[217,218,219,220,221]
Chromatographic separation High-resolution separation Medium-resolution separation No separation [216]
Sensitivity mM–nM mM–pM mM–µM [216, 222]
Limit of detection and quantification ng–pg (10−9–10−12) pg–fg (10−12–10−15)
Low pM
Low µM [222, 223]
Dynamic range > 106 > 106 > 103 [216]
Quantification accuracy ± 10% ± 10% ± 10% [216]
Speed of analysis (per sample) Slow (approximately 30 min) Slow (5–9 min) Fast (1 to 5 min) [216]
Main advantages High resolution
High precision
EI-MS library available
Soft ionisation
Large mass range
No sample preparation
Non-destructive
Suitable for compounds which are difficult to ionise or require derivatisation
[216, 224, 225]
Main disadvantages Significant sample preparation with chemical modification
Slow analysis time
Harsh ionization
Limited number of molecules can be analysed
Slow analysis time Poor sensitivity and dynamic range
Some chemical classes not detected
[216]