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Table 7 Comparison of GC–MS, LC–MS and NMR.

From: Understanding glycaemic control and current approaches for screening antidiabetic natural products from evidence-based medicinal plants

  GC–MS LC–MS NMR References
Sample preparation Extraction and chemical derivatisation Extraction Generally no sample preparation necessary [216]
Sample volume Split: < 1 µL Splitless: 1 µL 5–20 µL Conventional: 5–550 µL Microdroplet: ≤ 5 µL [217,218,219,220,221]
Chromatographic separation High-resolution separation Medium-resolution separation No separation [216]
Sensitivity mM–nM mM–pM mM–µM [216, 222]
Limit of detection and quantification ng–pg (10−9–10−12) pg–fg (10−12–10−15) Low pM Low µM [222, 223]
Dynamic range > 106 > 106 > 103 [216]
Quantification accuracy ± 10% ± 10% ± 10% [216]
Speed of analysis (per sample) Slow (approximately 30 min) Slow (5–9 min) Fast (1 to 5 min) [216]
Main advantages High resolution High precision EI-MS library available Soft ionisation Large mass range No sample preparation Non-destructive Suitable for compounds which are difficult to ionise or require derivatisation [216, 224, 225]
Main disadvantages Significant sample preparation with chemical modification Slow analysis time Harsh ionization Limited number of molecules can be analysed Slow analysis time Poor sensitivity and dynamic range Some chemical classes not detected [216]