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Table 1 Summary of flower color modification of torenia plants by genetic engineering

From: Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering

Target material Gene and method Gene origin Flower phenotype Reference
Torenia fournieri     
cv. Crown violet Sense CHS or DFR, antisense CHS or DFR Torenia White to pale blue [8, 35, 36]
cv. Crown reddish-purple Sense CHS or DFR, antisense CHS or DFR Torenia Wavy-patterned [8, 35, 36]
cv. Common violet Sense CHS or DFR, antisense CHS or DFR Torenia Wavy-patterned [8, 35, 36]
cv. Crown violet GPT-RNAi Torenia Lighter colored [39]
cv. Crown violet DEF-SRDX Torenia Partially decolorized [50]
cv. Crown violet Transcription factors-SRDX Arabidopsis Various color patterns [43, 44, 48]
cv. Crown violet MYB24-SRDX Arabidopsis Lacked color at both sides of the petal [47]
cv. Crown violet TCP3-SRDX Arabidopsis Various color patterns [46]
T. hybrida (T. fournieri x T. concolor)     
cv. Summerwave blue Sense CHS, sense DFR Torenia White to pale blue [17]
Inbred line T-33 Sense CHS or DFR, sense F3′5′H Torenia Yellow, pink [17]
cv. Summerwave blue Sense F3′H, sense F3′5′H Torenia Reddish [32]
cv. Summerwave blue Sense FNSII Torenia Pale blue [32]
cv. Summerwave blue CHS-RNAi Torenia White to pale blue [37]
cv. Summerwave blue Sense AS1 and sense 4′CGT Snapdragon Yellow [41]
  F3H-RNAi, DFR-RNAi Torenia   
cv. Summerwave blue Sense or antisense ANS, ANS-RNAi Torenia White to pale blue [38]
cv. Summerwave blue F3′H-RNAi, F3′5′H-RNAi Torenia Pink [40]
  Sense DFR Rose or pelargonium   
cv. Summerwave violet F3′H-RNAi, F3′5′H-RNAi Torenia Darker pink [40]
  Sense DFR Rose or pelargonium   
  1. Abbreviations: ANS anthocyanidin synthase, AS aureusidin synthase, 4′CGT chalcone 4-O-glucosyltransferase, CHS chalcone synthase, DEF DEFICIENS, DFR dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, F3H flavanone 3-hydroxylase, F3′H flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase, F3′5′H flavonoid 3′,5′- hydroxylase, FNSII flavone synthase II, GLO GLOBOSA, GPT glucose 6-phosphate/phosphate translocator, TCP TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS 1/2.