Transient transformation of the Arabidopsis seedlings by various Agrobacterium strains. Four-day-old Arabidopsis Col-0 and efr-1 seedlings infected with different Agrobacterium stains carrying pBISN1 by ABM50 or ABM-MS (named as AGROBEST) were compared by GUS staining (A), quantitative GUS activity (B), and root length (C) at 3 days post-inoculation (dpi). Data for quantitative GUS activity are mean ± SD of at least 4 biological replicates from 2 independent experiments. Values significantly different from that infected with wild-type C58 are denoted (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01 by Student’s t test). Data for root length measurement are mean ± SEM of 4-6 biological replicates from 2–4 independent experiments. Statistics was analyzed by ANOVA and means annotated with the same letter (a-c) are not significantly different; those with different letters are significantly different (P < 0.05). Seedlings grown in the same co-cultivation medium without Agrobacterium infection are indicated (MOCK).