Skip to main content

Table 2 Multi-dimensional features used in this study

From: Improving the estimation of alpine grassland fractional vegetation cover using optimized algorithms and multi-dimensional features

Overview Vegetation index References Calculation formula
Typical vegetation indices NDVI [64] \({\text{NDVI = (NIR - R)/(NIR + R)}}\)
EVI [35] \({\text{EVI = 2}}{.5} \times {\text{(NIR - R)/(NIR + 6}} \times {\text{R - 7}}{.5} \times {\text{B + 1)}}\)
SAVI [36] \({\text{SAVI = (1 + L}}_{{1}} {)} \times {\text{(NIR - R)/(NIR + R + L}}_{{1}} {)}\)
MSAVI [59] \({\text{MSAVI = }}\left[ {{2} \times {\text{NIR + 1 - }}\sqrt {{(2} \times {\text{NIR + 1)}}^{{2}} { - 8} \times {\text{(NIR - R)}}} } \right]{/2}\)
Added vegetation indices Simple Ratio (SR) [5] \({\text{SR = NIR/R}}\)
Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index (ARVI) [42] \({\text{ARVI = }}\left[ {{\text{NIR - }}\left( {{2} \times {\text{R - B}}} \right)} \right]{/}\left[ {{\text{NIR + }}\left( {{2} \times {\text{R - B}}} \right)} \right]\)
Difference Vegetation Index (DVI) [71] \({\text{DVI = NIR - R}}\)
Global Environmental Monitoring index (GEMI) [58] \(\left\{ {_{{{\text{eta = }}\left[ {{\text{2(NIR}}^{{2}} {\text{ - R}}^{{2}} {) + 1}{\text{.5}} \times {\text{NIR + 0}}{.5} \times {\text{R}}} \right]{\text{/(NIR + R + 0}}{.5)}}}^{{{\text{GEMI = eta(1 - 0}}{.25} \times {\text{eta) - (R - 0}}{\text{.125)/(1 - R)}}}} } \right.\)
Green Atmospherically Resistant Index (GARI) [29] \({\text{GARI = }}\left\{ {{\text{NIR - }}\left[ {{1}{\text{.7}} \times {\text{(B - R)}}} \right]} \right\}{/}\left\{ {{\text{NIR + }}\left[ {{1}{\text{.7}} \times {\text{(B - R)}}} \right]} \right\}\)
Green Difference Vegetation Index (GDVI) [67] \({\text{GDVI = NIR - G}}\)
Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI) [30] \({\text{GNDVI = (NIR - G)/(NIR + G)}}\)
Green Ratio Vegetation Index (GRVI) [67] \({\text{GRVI = NIR/G}}\)
Green Vegetation Index (GVI) [43] \(\left\{ \begin{gathered} {\text{GVI = ( - 0}}{.2848} \times {\text{B) + ( - 0}}{.2435} \times {\text{B) + ( - 0}}{.5436} \times {\text{R) + }} \hfill \\ { (0}{\text{.7243}} \times {\text{NIR) + (0}}{.0840} \times {\text{SWIR1) + }} \hfill \\ { ( - 0}{\text{.1800}} \times {\text{SWIR2)}} \hfill \\ \end{gathered} \right.\)
Infrared Percentage Vegetation Index (IPVI) [19] \({\text{IPVI = NIR/(NIR + R)}}\)
Leaf Area Index (LAI) [6] \({\text{LAI = 3}}{.618} \times {\text{EVI - 0}}{.118}\)
Modified Non-Linear Index (MNLI) [80] \({\text{MNLI = (NIR}}^{{2}} {\text{ - R)}} \times {\text{(1 + L}}_{{2}} {\text{)/(NIR}}^{{2}} {\text{ + R + L}}_{{2}} {)}\)
Modified Simple Ratio (MSR) [15] \({\text{MSR = (NIR/R - 1)/(}}\sqrt {\text{NIR/R}} { + 1)}\)
Non-Linear Index (NLI) [31] \({\text{NLI = (NIR}}^{{2}} {\text{ - R)/(NIR}}^{{2}} {\text{ + R)}}\)
Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI) [62] \({\text{OSAVI = }}\left[ {{1}{\text{.5}} \times {\text{(NIR - R)}}} \right]{\text{/(NIR + R + 0}}{.16)}\)
Renormalized Difference Vegetation Index (RDVI) [63] \({\text{RDVI = (NIR - R)/}}\sqrt {\text{NIR + R}}\)
Transformed Difference Vegetation Index (TDVI) [3] \({\text{TDVI = }}\sqrt {{0}{\text{.5 + (NIR - R)/(NIR + R)}}}\)
Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) [28] \({\text{VARI = (G - R)/(G + R - B)}}\)
Topographical factors DEM SRTM DEM
slope
aspect
  1. 1L1, and L2 are soil adjustment factor, which are considered by [59, 80] to be the best value of 0.5. NIR represent the reflectance of near-infrared band