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Table 1 Assignment of different components of the cuticle. Wavenumbers derived from NMF

From: Raman imaging reveals in-situ microchemistry of cuticle and epidermis of spruce needles

Wavenumber (cm−1) Assignment
Wax Cutin CaOx
1734 1723   ν C=O (fatty acid esters)
1712 1707   ν C=O (coumaric acid, midchain carbonyls)
  1654   ν C=C (anthoxanthins)
1632 1634   ν C=C (coumaric acid, stilbenes); Φ8 (anthoxanthins)
1607 1607   Φ8 (all rings)
  1570   ν C=O (anthoxanthins)
   1488 ν C=O (Calcium oxalate) [107]
   1463 ν C=O (Calcium oxalate) [107]
1455    δ C–H (aliphatic chains) [57]
1441 1440   δ C–H (aliphatic chains) [57]
1423    δ C–H (aliphatic chains) [57]
1372    γw CH2 (aliphatic chains) [57]
  1362   Φ20a (anthoxanthins(A-ring))
  1308   γt CH2 (aliphatic chains) [57]
1295    γt CH2 [57]
1201 1205   Φ7a (coumaricacid)
  1177   Φ9a (anthoxanthins with p-subst. C-Ring)
1169    Φ9a (coumaric acid)
1123    ν C–C (aliphatic chains)
  1112   
  1077   ν C–C (aliphatic chains)
1062 1066   ν C–C (aliphatic chains)
  1001   Φ12 (stilbenes)
921    ν C–C (aliphatic chains)
   895 νs C–C + δ O–C=O (Calcium oxalate) [107]
864 870 864 ν C–C + γr CH2 (aliphatic chains) [108]; (Calcium oxalate)
  831   ν C–C + γr CH2 (aliphatic chains) [108]
  738   (Kaempferol)
710    
653    
642 642   Φ6a (anthoxanthins (A-ring))
   593 Water libration (Calcium oxalate) [107]
  582   Φ1 (anthoxanthins (A-ring))
524   520 ν Ca-O + ν C–C (Calcium oxalate) [107]
  518   Φ6b (anthoxanthins (A-ring))
   503  
418 414   
  1. ν: stretching; δ: bending; γt: twisting; γr: rocking, γw: wagging; Φ: ring mode in Varsanyi notation [59]