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Table 2 Importance (according to the sensitivity analysis) and optimal levels of the different factors including cell extract (CE), culture filtrate (CF) concentration levels [% (v/v)], fungal elicitor adding day and harvesting time (day) for achieving maximum growth, paclitaxel biosynthesis and its secretion in Corylus avellana cell culture by the optimization analysis using FOA and genetic algorithm (GA) on developed general regression neural network-fruit fly optimization (GRNN-FOA) models

From: A hybrid model based on general regression neural network and fruit fly optimization algorithm for forecasting and optimizing paclitaxel biosynthesis in Corylus avellana cell culture

Criteria Variable Importance value (according to VSRa) Optimal level Output optimal
FOA GA FOA GA
Dry weight (g l−1) CE concentration level 0.0068 4.26 5.34 12.57 12.18
CF concentration level 0.0053 0.54 0.71
Adding day 0.0237 16.33 15.62
Harvest time 1.0022 20.58 20.86
Intracellular paclitaxel (µg g−1DW) CE concentration level 0.8904 4.12 3.45 19.26 18.53
CF concentration level 0.6751 5.84 5.68
Adding day 0.4257 15.72 16.97
Harvest time 0.2443 20.34 20.41
Intracellular paclitaxel (µg l−1) CE concentration level 0.7458 4.43 5.07 224.78 213.78
CF concentration level 0.4406 5.69 5.46
Adding day 0.4083 16.09 16.79
Harvest time 0.3961 20.47 21.09
Extracellular paclitaxel (µg l−1) CE concentration level 0.2862 4.58 4.73 152.15 141.11
CF concentration level 0.7519 4.71 5.06
Adding day 0.1893 15.91 16.19
Harvest time 0.9477 22.06 22.86
Total yield of paclitaxel (µg l−1) CE concentration level 0.6891 4.29 4.97 372.89 369.04
CF concentration level 0.6043 5.38 5.01
Adding day 0.0943 17.00 16.53
Harvest time 0.2018 20.68 20.16
Extracellular paclitaxel portion (%) CE concentration level 0.1003 4.62 5.06 50.36 49.63
CF concentration level 0.0622 4.91 4.97
Adding day 0.1409 16.59 17.03
Harvest time 0.4224 22.66 21.98
  1. aRelative indication of the ratio between the variable sensitivity error and the error of the model when all variables are available