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Fig. 1 | Plant Methods

Fig. 1

From: Rapid metabolite response in leaf blade and petiole as a marker for shade avoidance syndrome

Fig. 1

Application of Raman spectroscopy for SAS in Arabidopsis. a Phenotype of 17-days-old WT Arabidopsis plants under white light (WL) and two different shade conditions, moderate shade (MS) and deep shade (DS). Upper panel, top-down view of plant. Lower panel, side view of plant. Scale, 1 cm. b Ratio of petiole length to leaf blade area for visualising severity of SAS (n = 8). c Relative expression of shade-induced genes in Arabidopsis plants in a (n = 3). AtHB2/4, A. thaliana Homeobox Protein 2/4; PIL1, Phytochrome Interacting Factor 3-Like 1; FT, Flowering Locus T. d Total carotenoid content (µg/g fresh weight) of plants in a (n = 3). e Raman spectrum peaks representing carotenoids (1004 cm−1, 1150 cm−1 and 1521 cm−1) of Arabidopsis under shade conditions in a (leaf blade: n = 8, petiole: n = 4). f Relative gene expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis plants in a (n = 3). DXS, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase; DXR, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase; HDR, hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate reductase; PSY, Phytoene Synthase; PDS, Phytoene Desaturase. Bars denote average ± SE. Statistical significance between WL and shade was determined by two-tailed Student’s t-test: *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001

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