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Table 4 Growth parameters obtained by imaging and ANOVA for seven rice genotypes at 28 days after sowing

From: Non-destructive phenotyping for early seedling vigor in direct-seeded rice

Traits LB-46 GM-217 AC38399 ARC10656 Vandana Sabita Varshadhan ANOVA
First leaf length (mm) 66.32 ± 2.76 63.20 ± 13.26 48.21 ± 3.08 67.36 ± 16.78 72.14 ± 18.87 101.26 ± 19.02 48.21 ± 3.08 NS
Second leaf length (mm) 111.94 ± 20.43 147.49 ± 16.44 130.81 ± 4.61 128.46 ± 19.29 173.22 ± 20.30 126.56 ± 29.26 130.81 ± 4.61 NS
Third leaf length (mm) 151.18 ± 20.03 193.23 ± 22.2 180.63 ± 4.42 177.35 ± 15.42 229.31 ± 21.69 174.90 ± 31.52 180.63 ± 4.42 NS
Fourth leaf length (mm) 198.58 ± 15.05 229.58 ± 21.52 210.45 ± 4.95 228.71 ± 25.32 271.79 ± 26.66 201.28 ± 27.44 210.45 ± 4.95 NS
Fifth leaf length (mm) 243.21 ± 21.18 229.89 ± 37.97 230.32 ± 11.47 234.56 ± 39.73 205.24 ± 44.85 180.11 ± 27.27 230.32 ± 13.31 NS
Sixth leaf length (mm) 229.48 ± 44.81 168.76 ± 74.47 229.27 ± 41.11 190.79 ± 92.98 184.21 ± 81.17 255.59 ± 21.16 229.27 ± 41.11 NS
Seventh leaf length (mm) 201.18 ± 39.41 582.00 ± 82.14 74.13 ± 14.64 85.64 ± 17.24 83.14 ± 19.62 228.57 ± 24.51 74.13 ± 4.91 NS
First leaf width (mm) 2.16 ± 0.34 2.18 ± 0.28 2.89 ± 0.37 2.11 ± 0.33 3.50 ± 0.20 3.60 ± 0.21 2.89 ± 0.37 **
Second leaf width (mm) 2.62 ± 0.24 2.66 ± 0.41 2.77 ± 0.16 2.49 ± 0.27 3.34 ± 0.32 3.74 ± 0.23 2.77 ± 0.16 *
Third leaf width (mm) 3.19 ± 0.42 3.03 ± 0.52 3.68 ± 0.16 2.88 ± 0.32 4.39 ± 0.36 3.96 ± 0.37 3.68 ± 0.16 *
Fourth leaf width (mm) 4.36 ± 0.50 3.42 ± 0.24 4.78 ± 0.34 3.36 ± 0.08 4.57 ± 0.44 4.22 ± 0.36 4.78 ± 0.34 **
Fifth leaf width (mm) 4.61 ± 0.91 14.25 ± 10.88 5.25 ± 0.26 2.79 ± 0.39 3.34 ± 0.61 4.14 ± 0.61 5.25 ± 0.26 NS
Sixth leaf width (mm) 4.34 ± 0.90 3.03 ± 0.72 4.33 ± 0.87 2.63 ± 0.42 3.17 ± 0.69 4.16 ± 0.14 4.33 ± 0.87 NS
Seventh leaf width (mm) 5.31 ± 0.86 5.42 ± 0.92 0.93 ± 0.08 0.98 ± 0.10 0.94 ± 0.08 4.02 ± 0.17 0.93 ± 0.11 NS
First leaf area (mm2) 115.62 ± 15.13 99.29 ± 23.83 96.96 ± 14.69 118.96 ± 41.85 166.62 ± 37.83 253.11 ± 56.69 96.96 ± 14.69 *
Second leaf area (mm2) 225.30 ± 46.01 241.81 ± 56.29 237.80 ± 18.04 250.32 ± 50.13 413.61 ± 86.04 339.22 ± 85.60 237.81 ± 18.04 NS
Third leaf area (mm2) 351.65 ± 74.75 385.22 ± 91.89 397.66 ± 12.85 361.76 ± 59.46 690.66 ± 142.21 482.88 ± 110.97 397.66 ± 12.85 NS
Fourth leaf area (mm2) 604.80 ± 115.2 559.96 ± 65.80 583.40 ± 24.37 492.26 ± 62.38 845.77 ± 145.52 598.48 ± 86.07 583.40 ± 24.37 NS
Fifth leaf area (mm2) 873.96 ± 151.6 613.48 ± 85.58 734.45 ± 90.82 485.48 ± 118.77 495.43 ± 148.94 460.41 ± 137.46 734.46 ± 90.82 NS
Sixth leaf area (mm2) 881.14 ± 258.6 546.32 ± 269.52 743.25 ± 176.97 372.59 ± 232.86  378.47 ± 214.36 790.56 ± 65.25 743.25 ± 176.97 NS
Seventh leaf area (mm2) 811.20 ± 196.4 998.36 ± 257.31 52.21 ± 8.54 65.92 ± 10.35 62.34 ± 14.68 573.51 ± 55.74 52.21 ± 7.24 NS
Stem area (mm2) 647.09 ± 84.22 856.64 ± 60.32 650.17 ± 54.88 630.66 ± 30.95 725.42 ± 85.67 726.68 ± 27.03 650.17 ± 54.88 NS
Eccentricity 285.21 ± 33.9 311.64 ± 24.15 234.53 ± 24.43 196.20 ± 20.69 196.91 ± 15.77 169.86 ± 24.42 260.95 ± 33.49 **
Convex hull (mm2) 80580.53 ± 15441 58032.17 ± 14316 21874.73 ± 6181 20969.94 ± 4023 16674.40 ± 2546 24296.94 ± 6958 35618.86 ± 13802.31 **
Caliper length (mm) 510.05 ± 66.91 457.71 ± 74.49 374.78 ± 29.91 305.70 ± 35.86 327.26 ± 29.27 302.32 ± 49.05 451.99 ± 58.82 *
WPAs (mm2) 4522.00 ± 503 3585.16 ± 406.04 3510.24 ± 406.96 2488.48 ± 97.75 3337.50 ± 293.75 3107.58 ± 74.03 3454.15 ± 248.33 **
WPAi (mm2) 4068.50 ± 938 2215.22 ± 580.52 2032.65 ± 310 1109.57 ± 50.02 1456.73 ± 150.38 1744.54 ± 149.50 2483.14 ± 399.20 **
Top view area (mm2) 8940.64 ± 3461 3052.59 ± 377 4107.37 ± 1301 2092.91 ± 421 2419.07 ± 537.93 3578.04 ± 894.76 5536.39 ± 1623 **
Compactness 0.11 ± 0.08 0.05 ± 0.01 0.19 ± 0.06 0.10 ± 0.06 0.15 ± 0.07 0.15 ± 0.08 0.16 ± 0.07 **
  1. Mean ± standard error and significance of ANOVA are presented for each variety
  2. NS non-significant
  3. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.001