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Table 1 Morphological features of hard and soft seeds for six species

From: Non-destructive identification of single hard seed via multispectral imaging analysis in six legume species

  Acacia seyal Galega orientulis Glycyrrhiza glabra Medicago sativa Melilotus officinalis Thermopsis lanceolata
Hard Soft Hard Soft Hard Soft Hard Soft Hard Soft Hard Soft
Area (mm2) 18.06 ± 2.65 18.53 ± 2.94 5.6 ± 0.68 5.78 ± 0.67** 6.46 ± 0.76 6.55 ± 0.72 2.50 ± 0.37 2.60 ± 0.29** 2.40 ± 0.28 2.52 ± 0.28** 11.98 ± 1.43 11.65 ± 1.28*
Length (mm) 6.12 ± 0.55 6.18 ± 0.56 3.63 ± 0.29 3.69 ± 0.27* 3.07 ± 0.20 3.1 ± 0.19 2.32 ± 0.21 2.40 ± 0.16** 2.19 ± 0.17 2.22 ± 0.17 4.31 ± 0.27 4.25 ± 0.28
Width (mm) 3.86 ± 0.34 3.92 ± 0.34 2.00 ± 0.15 2.02 ± 0.15 2.74 ± 0.16 2.74 ± 0.15 1.46 ± 0.14 1.45 ± 0.11 1.47 ± 0.09 1.52 ± 0.09** 3.62 ± 0.21 3.59 ± 0.19
Width/length ratio 0.63 ± 0.07 0.64 ± 0.07 0.55 ± 0.05 0.55 ± 0.05 0.89 ± 0.03 0.88 ± 0.04** 0.63 ± 0.07 0.61 ± 0.06** 0.67 ± 0.05 0.69 ± 0.05* 0.84 ± 0.03 0.85 ± 0.04
Compactness circle 0.63 ± 0.07 0.63 ± 0.07 0.52 ± 0.05 0.52 ± 0.04 0.88 ± 0.04 0.87 ± 0.04 0.60 ± 0.07 0.58 ± 0.06** 0.66 ± 0.05 0.67 ± 0.05* 0.82 ± 0.04 0.82 ± 0.04
Compactness ellipse 1.00 ± 0.00 1.00 ± 0.00 0.99 ± 0.01 0.99 ± 0.01* 1.00 ± 0.01 1.00 ± 0.00 0.99 ± 0.01 0.99 ± 0.01 1.00 ± 0.00 1.00 ± 0.00 0.99 ± 0.00 0.99 ± 0.00
Beta shape a 1.58 ± 0.08 1.59 ± 0.10 1.32 ± 0.07 1.32 ± 0.07 1.49 ± 0.06 1.48 ± 0.05 1.51 ± 0.15 1.46 ± 0.13** 1.62 ± 0.05 1.61 ± 0.06* 1.46 ± 0.06 1.46 ± 0.06
Beta shape b 1.48 ± 0.06 1.48 ± 0.06 1.27 ± 0.07 1.27 ± 0.06 1.42 ± 0.06 1.41 ± 0.05 1.43 ± 0.12 1.40 ± 0.12* 1.55 ± 0.06 1.54 ± 0.05** 1.36 ± 0.06 1.36 ± 0.05
Vertical Skewness -0.05 ± 0.02 -0.06 ± 0.03 -0.03 ± 0.03 -0.03 ± 0.02 -0.04 ± 0.02 -0.04 ± 0.02 -0.04 ± 0.04 -0.03 ± 0.03** -0.03 ± 0.02 -0.04 ± 0.02 -0.05 ± 0.02 -0.06 ± 0.02
CIELab L* 35.12 ± 2.84 35.07 ± 2.37 41.30 ± 3.07 40.9 ± 3.44 36.70 ± 3.27 37.66 ± 3.33* 47.89 ± 3.62 51.83 ± 2.72** 45.16 ± 3.96 48.92 ± 2.66** 26.69 ± 2.04 27.01 ± 1.89
CIELab a* 6.94 ± 2.30 6.19 ± 2.06* 11.75 ± 1.33 12.86 ± 1.45** 4.77 ± 1.92 4.39 ± 1.80 10.05 ± 1.80 8.96 ± 1.61** 10.98 ± 2.01 10.44 ± 1.90* -0.19 ± 0.58 -0.18 ± 0.52
CIELab b* 14.43 ± 1.91 14.11 ± 1.40 27.30 ± 3.15 26.73 ± 3.44 15.08 ± 2.37 15.05 ± 1.89 24.64 ± 4.12 20.52 ± 2.40** 27.46 ± 3.58 26.35 ± 2.63** 3.38 ± 1.21 3.14 ± 0.82*
Saturation 16.11 ± 2.46 15.52 ± 1.69 29.78 ± 2.86 29.74 ± 2.99 15.89 ± 2.62 15.75 ± 2.08 26.68 ± 4.07 22.48 ± 2.05** 29.63 ± 3.69 28.40 ± 2.64** 3.44 ± 1.22 3.19 ± 0.81*
Hue 1.13 ± 0.10 1.16 ± 0.12 1.16 ± 0.06 1.12 ± 0.08** 1.27 ± 0.10 1.29 ± 0.10* 1.18 ± 0.08 1.16 ± 0.09** 1.19 ± 0.06 1.19 ± 0.07** -0.6 ± 1.31 -0.4 ± 1.38
Vertical orientation 0.01 ± 0.09 -0.01 ± 0.07 0.00 ± 0.11 0.00 ± 0.12 0.00 ± 0.11 -0.01 ± 0.11 0.01 ± 0.1 0.00 ± 0.09 0.00 ± 0.13 0.00 ± 0.11 0.02 ± 0.08 0.01 ± 0.09
  1. * and ** indicate significant difference at 0.05 and 0.01 levels, respectively, between hard and soft seeds for each species based on the Independent T test