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Table 2 The applications of digital photography in the study of fruit tree phenotypes

From: Phenotypic techniques and applications in fruit trees: a review

Applications Species Scale Devices Detected parameters Evaluation parameters Advantages Limitations References
Indices Performance evaluation
Architecture parameters Apple orchard T Nikon FC-E8 fisheye lens LAI; PAI    Low cost; high accuracy; especially suitable for the determination of LAI Susceptible to uneven light and overlapping blades [55]
T CID CI-110 fisheye lens LAI   Error = 13% [56]
T Digimax A503 Samsung LAI   R2 = 0.85; RMSE = 0.22 [61]
Almond orchard T Nikon FC-E8 fisheye lens LAI NDVI R2 = 0.88 [57]
NDWI R2 = 0.91
Vineyard T Digimax A503 Samsung LAI   R2 = 0.97; RMSE = 11.5% [62]
T Canon EOS 60D LA   R2 = 0.93; RMSE = 3.0% [63]
Citrus orchard T Canon EOS 6D Cv    [64]
Biochemical parameters Mango F Kodak D5100 Chl-a (NDVI − VARI)/(NDVI + VARI) R2 = 0.71 RGB images can reflect colour information well The evaluation accuracy is not high enough [45]
Chl-t R2 = 0.71
Chl-b (R − B)/(R + B) R2 = 0.57
Carotenoids R2 = 0.53
TSS R2 = 0.57
TA R2 = 0.59
  1. Note: In the “scale” column of the table, the fruit tree objects are divided into individual trees (T) and fruits (F)