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Table 1 The applications of VIS–NIR spectroscopy in the study of fruit tree phenotypes

From: Phenotypic techniques and applications in fruit trees: a review

Applications Species Scale Spectral range Devices Detected parameters Evaluation parameters Advantages Limitations References
Indices Performance evaluation
Pigment and nutrient contents Apple orchard L 253–922 nm Ocean Optics Fiber Spec Chl   R = 0.91; RMSEP = 0.22 Easy to operate; non-destructive for leaves More samples lead to longer testing time [31]
L 350–2500 nm FieldSpec 3 Chl   R2 = 0.6213 [30]
Vineyard L 350–1000 nm Ocean Optics USB2000 Chl   R2 = 0.8–0.9 [33]
Carotenoid SIPI R2 = 0.49
L 350–2500 nm FieldSpec3 Moisture   R2 = 0.96 [34]
N R2 = 0.95
Mg R2 = 0.77
Water stress Citrus orchard T 350–2500 nm FieldSpec Pro Water status   R2 = 0.89 Obtain the spectral value directly; not affected by sunlight conditions Detection at the orchard level is limited [36]
Olive orchard T 350–2500 nm FieldSpec Pro Ψleaf NDGI R2 = 0.57; RMSE = 0.37 [37]
MSI R2 = 0.48; RMSE = 0.41
L Ψleaf MSI R2 = 0.45; RMSE = 0.72
NDWI R2 = 0.45; RMSE = 0.75
Vineyard L 350–2500 nm FieldSpec4 EWT   R2 = 0.681 [39]
T 325–1075 nm FieldSpec Handheld2 Ψpd VARI R2 = 0.79; [38]
NDGI R2 = 0.79;
L 1600–2400 nm Micro PHAZIR Ψs   Rcv = 0.77–0.93 [40]
RWC Rcv = 0.66–0.81
T 1100–2100 nm NIR Spec gs   R2 = 0.95 [41]
T 1100–2100 nm PSS 2120 Ψs   R2 = 0.86 [42]
gs R2 = 0.66
T 1100–2100 nm PSS 2120 Ψs   R2 = 0.68–0.85 [43]
Biochemical parameters Mango orchard F 302–1148 nm FieldSpec TSS   R2 = 0.72 The method of data processing is simple Interfered by the non-targets’ spectral information [45]
TA R2 = 0.64
Vineyard F 570–900 nm PSS 1050 TSS   R2 = 0.95 [46]
Anthocyanins R2 = 0.79
Polyphenols R2 = 0.43
  1. Note: In the “scale” column of the table, the fruit tree objects are divided into single leaves (L), individual trees (T) and fruits (F)