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Table 2 (A) Results of one-way repeated measures ANOVA and (B) pair-wise comparison for differences in NPQ_i1 of the same area before and after X-ray exposure (n = 4)

From: Analysis of trace metal distribution in plants with lab-based microscopic X-ray fluorescence imaging

(A) Repeated ANOVA, test of within subjects effect
   Sum of squares DF Mean square F Prob > F  
 X-ray treatment Sphericity assumed 0.0804 1 0.0804 11.32322 0.04357*  
 Error (xray) Sphericity assumed 0.0213 3 0.0071    
(B) Pairwise comparison, Bonferroni test
  Index Mean difference Std. error DF Prob > |t| 95% LCL 95% UCL
 Before/after X-ray treatment 0 − 0.2005 0.05958 3 0.04357* − 0.39012 − 0.01088
  1. NPQ_i1—complete non-photochemical quenching ((Fm − \( {\text{F}}_{\text{m}}^{{\prime }} \))/Fm) at the onset of irradiance phase (_i1) according to Küpper et al. [25]. Significant differences are emphasized with asterisks