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Table 1 List of five categories 28 phenotypic traits of stem obtained by automated image processing pipeline

From: Phenotyping analysis of maize stem using micro-computed tomography at the elongation and tasseling stages

Phenotypic typesDescriptionUnits
Intensity-basedAverage intensity (AI)Gray-level
Geometry-based (dimensional)Width (W)mm
Height (H)mm
Main axis length (MAL)mm
Main axis width (MAW)mm
Circumcircle radius (CR)mm
Inscribed circle radius (ICR)mm
Area (A)mm2
Perimeter (P)mm
Convex hull area (CHA)mm2
Geometry-based (dimensionless)Rectangularity (RA), \({\text{RA}} = \frac{{\text{A}}}{{{\text{MAL}} \times {\text{MAW}}}}\)
Aspect ratio (AR), \({\text{AR}} = \frac{MAW}{{MAL}}\)
Circularity (CIR), \({\text{CIR}} = \frac{4\pi \cdot A}{{P^{2} }}\)
Eccentricity (ECC), \({\text{ECC}} = \frac{{\sqrt {MAL^{2} - MAW^{2} } }}{MAL}\)
Sphericity (SPH), \({\text{SPH}} = \frac{{{\text{ICR}}}}{{{\text{CR}}}}\)
Convexity (CV), \({\text{CV}} = \frac{A}{CHA}\)
Distribution-basedDistance from vascular bundle to stem center (DC)mm
Layer-based (equal-distance, equal-area)Area of each layer (AEL)mm2
Number of vascular bundles in each layer (NVBEL)
Area of vascular bundles in each layer (AVBEL)mm2
Voronoi area of vascular bundle in each layer (VAVBEL)mm2
Growth-based (epidermis, periphery, inner)Area of each function zone (AEFZ)mm2
Number of vascular bundles in periphery zone (NVBPZ)
Number of vascular bundles in inner zone (NVBIZ)
Area of vascular bundles in periphery zone (AVBPZ)mm2
Area of vascular bundles in inner zone (AVBIZ)mm2
Voronoi area of vascular bundle in periphery zone (VAVPZ)mm2
Voronoi area of vascular bundle in inner zone (VAVIZ)mm2