Intensity-based | Average intensity (AI) | Gray-level |

Geometry-based (dimensional) | Width (W) | mm |

Height (H) | mm |

Main axis length (MAL) | mm |

Main axis width (MAW) | mm |

Circumcircle radius (CR) | mm |

Inscribed circle radius (ICR) | mm |

Area (A) | mm^{2} |

Perimeter (P) | mm |

Convex hull area (CHA) | mm^{2} |

Geometry-based (dimensionless) | Rectangularity (RA), \({\text{RA}} = \frac{{\text{A}}}{{{\text{MAL}} \times {\text{MAW}}}}\) | – |

Aspect ratio (AR), \({\text{AR}} = \frac{MAW}{{MAL}}\) | – |

Circularity (CIR), \({\text{CIR}} = \frac{4\pi \cdot A}{{P^{2} }}\) | – |

Eccentricity (ECC), \({\text{ECC}} = \frac{{\sqrt {MAL^{2} - MAW^{2} } }}{MAL}\) | – |

Sphericity (SPH), \({\text{SPH}} = \frac{{{\text{ICR}}}}{{{\text{CR}}}}\) | – |

Convexity (CV), \({\text{CV}} = \frac{A}{CHA}\) | – |

Distribution-based | Distance from vascular bundle to stem center (DC) | mm |

Layer-based (equal-distance, equal-area) | Area of each layer (AEL) | mm^{2} |

Number of vascular bundles in each layer (NVBEL) | – |

Area of vascular bundles in each layer (AVBEL) | mm^{2} |

Voronoi area of vascular bundle in each layer (VAVBEL) | mm^{2} |

Growth-based (epidermis, periphery, inner) | Area of each function zone (AEFZ) | mm^{2} |

Number of vascular bundles in periphery zone (NVBPZ) | – |

Number of vascular bundles in inner zone (NVBIZ) | – |

Area of vascular bundles in periphery zone (AVBPZ) | mm^{2} |

Area of vascular bundles in inner zone (AVBIZ) | mm^{2} |

Voronoi area of vascular bundle in periphery zone (VAVPZ) | mm^{2} |

Voronoi area of vascular bundle in inner zone (VAVIZ) | mm^{2} |