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Table 1 Top-1 and Top-5 accuracies achieved for each single perspective and for all combinations of perspectives

From: Flowers, leaves or both? How to obtain suitable images for automated plant identification

Analysed All Forbs Grasses
Perspective(s) Top-1 Top-5 Top-1 Top-5 Top-1
Entire plant (EP) 77.4 92.7 80.8 94.5 63.3
Flower frontal (FF) 87.1 96.5 92.6 98.7 85.0
Flower lateral (FL) 88.2 97.6 89.1 97.9 85.0
Leaf top side (LT) 81.1 94.8 84.9 95.6 55.8
Leaf back side (LB) 81.8 95.4 83.8 96.1 68.3
EP + FF 91.6 98.5 94.6 99.1 84.2
EP + FL 92.4 98.4 85.1 96.2 90.8
EP + LT 88.3 97.6 91.2 98.1 71.7
EP + LB 90.3 98.2 92.5 98.4 78.3
FF + FL 93.3 98.5 94.0 98.9 87.5
FF + LT 92.5 98.6 96.4 99.4 84.2
FF + LB 93.3 98.7 96.1 99.3 88.3
FL + LT 93.7 98.7 87.2 96.1 84.2
FL + LB 93.5 99.0 86.7 96.7 85.8
LT + LB 88.4 97.4 91.0 97.8 70.0
EP + FF + FL 95.3 98.9 94.5 98.9 92.5
EP + FF + LT 94.0 99.0 96.5 99.3 82.5
EP + FF + LB 95.1 99.3 96.9 99.6 90.0
EP + FL + LT 94.4 98.9 92.4 98.3 84.2
EP + FL + LB 95.5 99.3 93.3 98.7 84.2
EP + LT + LB 92.1 98.7 94.8 98.8 89.2
FF + FL + LT 95.8 99.0 96.8 99.3 87.5
FF + FL + LB 95.8 99.1 96.5 99.3 91.7
FF + LT + LB 95.3 98.9 97.4 99.6 91.7
FL + LT + LB 94.8 99.0 92.3 98.0 84.2
EP + FF + FL + LT 96.0 98.9 97.0 99.2 90.0
EP + FF + FL + LB 96.7 99.4 97.4 99.6 92.5
EP + FF + LT + LB 95.8 99.3 97.6 99.4 86.7
EP + FL + LT + LB 96.2 99.1 95.6 98.9 88.3
FF + FL + LT + LB 96.8 99.3 97.6 99.6 90.8
All 97.1 99.3 98.2 99.4 90.0
  1. “All” refers to the complete dataset comprising 101 species, “Forbs” refers to the 89 forb species and “Grasses” refers to the twelve Poaceae species. Top-5 accuracy is not shown for “Grasses” due to the low number of species. The highest accuracy per combination level is marked in bold face