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Fig. 2 | Plant Methods

Fig. 2

From: Regeneration and transient gene expression in protoplasts of Draparnaldia (chlorophytes), an emerging model for comparative analyses with basal streptophytes

Fig. 2

Life cycle of Draparnaldia. Two types of asexual reproduction are presented. Zoospores are strictly aquatic reproductive stages and have a distinct Upright Sytem (US) and Prostrate System (PS). Akinetes (= resting stages) are zoospores arrested in a parental filament. They are formed during drought periods and enable a long-term survival in the terrestrial habitat. However, water availability is required for their germination. The germinating akinetes have only the US, the PS is formed later. Note, that Draparnaldia is also capable of fragmentation (not shown). Fragmentation is initiated with algal transition from the aquatic to the terrestrial habitat. It leads to the filament splitting into two new filaments with a fully developed UP and PS. A general mechanism of the fragmentation process has been described in Ref. [29]. In addition, a sexual reproduction of Draparnaldia has been reported [68], but it has not been confirmed for this specific strain

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