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Table 3 Accuracy according to the existence of long short-term memory (LSTM) and multi-task learning (MTL)

From: Long short-term memory for a model-free estimation of macronutrient ion concentrations of root-zone in closed-loop soilless cultures

Methodology R2 RMSE (meq L−1)
With LSTM, with MTL 0.67 1.58
With LSTM, without MTL 0.51 1.66
Without LSTM, with MTL − 0.75 3.90
Without LSTM, without MTL − 0.54 3.62
  1. R2 and RMSE represent the average values of the six ions