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Table 1 Vegetation indices (VIs) derived from red green blue (RGB) and multispectral images

From: Dynamic monitoring of biomass of rice under different nitrogen treatments using a lightweight UAV with dual image-frame snapshot cameras

Vegetation indices Definition References
RGB-VIs
Visible-band difference vegetation index VDVI = (2 * G − R − B)/(2 * G + R + B) [37]
Normalized green–red difference index NGRDI = (G − R)/(G + R) [43]
Visible atmospherically resistant index VARI = (G − R)/(G + R – B) [38]
Green–red ratio index GRRI = G/R [44]
Vegetativen VEG = G/(Ra * B(1 − a)) a = 0.667 [45]
Modified green blue vegetation index MGRVI = (G2 − R2)/(G2 + R2) [14]
MS-VIs
Normalized difference spectral index NDSI = (Rλ1 − Rλ2)/(Rλ1 + Rλ2) [46]
Simple ratio index SR = Rλ1/Rλ2 [47]
Modified normalized difference spectral index MNDSI = (Rλ1 − Rλ2)/(Rλ1 − Rλ3) [48]
  1. R, G and B are the reflectance of Red, Blue and Green channels, respectively. Rλ1 represents the reflectance of a variable band in the spectral region of 600–1000 nm. For an example, the NDSI(796, 679) is calculated based on the reflectance data at λ1 = 796 nm and λ2 = 679 nm