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Table 6 Summary of vegetation indices derived from the aerial orthophotos for the estimation of aboveground biomass in wheat

From: Improved estimation of aboveground biomass in wheat from RGB imagery and point cloud data acquired with a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle system

Index Name Formulation References
VARI Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index \({\text{VARI}} = \frac{g - r}{g + r - b}\) Gitelson et al. [46]
ExG Excess Green Index ExG = 2 * g − r − b Woebbecke et al. [47]
ExR Excess Red Vegetation Index \({\text{ExR}} = \frac{1.4R - G}{G + R + B}\) Meyer et al. [48]
ExB Excess Blue Vegetation Index \({\text{ExB}} = \frac{1.4*B - G}{G + R + B}\) Mao et al. [49]
ExGR Excess Green minus Excess Red ExGR = ExG–ExR Neto et al. [50]
GRVI Green Red Vegetation Index \({\text{GRVI}} = \frac{G - R}{G + R}\) Tucker et al. [51]
MGRVI Modified Green Red Vegetation Index \({\text{MGRVI}} = \frac{{G^{2} - R^{2} }}{{G^{2} + R^{2} }}\) Bendig et al. [6]
GLI Green Leaf Index \({\text{GLI}} = \frac{2*g - r - b}{ - r - b}\) Louhaichi et al. [52]
RGBVI Red Green Blue Vegetation Index \({\text{RGBVI}} = \frac{{G^{2} - B*R}}{{G^{2} + B*R}}\) Bendig et al. [6]
IKAW Kawashima Index \({\text{IKAW}} = \frac{R - B}{R + B}\) Kawashima et al. [53]
  1. R, G and B represent the digital number of red, green and blue channels, respectively. r = R/(R + G + B), g = G/(R + G + B), b = B/(R + G + B)