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Table 3 Agronomic traits engineered via chloroplast genome

From: Recent achievements obtained by chloroplast transformation

Site of integration Regulatory sequences Transgene/s Efficiency of expression Enhanced traits References
rbcL/accD Prrn/rbcL 3′ panD >4-fold β-alanine Tolerance to high-temperature stress [39]
trnI/trnA Prrn/ggagg/psbA tps1 >169-fold transcript Drought tolerance: growth in 6% polyethylene glycol and rehydration after 24 days of drought [40]
rbcL/rbcL psbA/psbA/3′rbL Hppd 5% TSP Resistance to herbicide [41]
trnI/trnA Prrn/T7 10/rps16 Badh 93–101 μM g−1 FW Salt tolerance: carrot plants survived up to 400 mM NaCl [42]
trnfM/trnG atpI/rps16 Lycopene β-cyclase 0.28 mg g−1 DW Herbicide resistance and triggers conversion of lycopene [43]
rbcL/accD Prrn/ggagg/psbA EPSPS/aroA NR Resistance to glyphosate (>5 mM) [32]
prs14/trnG Prrn/T7 g10/TrbcL HTP, TCY, TMT NR Cold-stress tolerance and increase in vitamin E in fruit [44]
trnV/rps7/12 Prrn/Trps16 EPSPS >10% TSP Resistance to the herbicide glyphosate [45]
trnV/rps12/7 Prrn/TrbcL b-bar1 >7% TSP Resistance to the herbicide phosphinothricin [46]
trnI/trnA Prrn/psbA/psbA phaA 14.71 β-ketothiolase mg−1 FW Engineered cytoplasmic male sterility [47]
trnI/trnA Prrn/T7 g 10/TpsbA γ-TMT >7.7% TSP Increased salt tolerance and enhanced accumulationof ɑ-tocopherol in seeds [48]
trnI/trnA T7g10 or psbA RbcS >150-fold RbcS transcript Restoration of RuBisCO activity in rbcS mutants [49]
rbcL/accD Prrn/ggagg/psbA cry2Aa2 2–3% of TSP Resistance to Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Spodoptera exigua [50]
trnV/3′rps12 prrn T7G10/rps12 Trx f, Trx m NR Starch synthesis [51]
trnI/trnA 5′psbA/3′psbA ubiC 25% DW 250-fold higher pHBA polymer accumulation than nuclear transgenic lines [52]
rbcL/accD PpsbA/Trsp16 TC, γ -TMT 3 nmol h−1 mg−1 FW Vitamin E accumulation in tobacco and lettuce [53]
trnV/orf708 psbA/psbA/psbA BicA ~0.1% TSP CO2 capture within leaf chloroplasts [54]
trnV/rps12/7 Prrn/rbcL/rps16 cry1A(c) 3–5% of TSP Resistance to larvae of Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Spodoptera exigua [55]
rbcL/accD Prrn/Trps16 CrtZ, CrtW NR Accumulation of astaxanthin fatty acid esters in lettuce [56]
trnV/rps12/7 Prrn/T7gene10/rbcL cry1Ab NR Resistance to caterpillar of Anticarsia gemmatalis [57]
trnI/trnA Prrn/Trps16 MSI-99 89.75 μg g−1 FW Resistance against rice blast fungus [30]
trnI/trnA Prrn/TpsbA sporamin1, CeCPI2, and chitinase2 0.85–1% TSP Resistance against Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua leaf spot, as well as soft rot diseases [58]
trnI/trnA Prrn/ggagg/psbA Bt cry2Aa2 operon 45.3% TSP 100% mortality of cotton bollworm, beet armyworm; cuboidal Bt crystals formation [59]
trnI/trnA Prrn/ggagg/psbA msi-99 21–43% TSP Resistance to in planta challenge of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium moniliforme, Verticillium dahlia, and Colletotrichum destructivum [60]
trnI/trnA Prrn/ggagg/rbcL Bt cry9Aa2 ~10% of TSP Resistance to Phthorimaea operculella [61]
trnI/trnA Prrn/psbA/psbA Cpo NR Resistance to fungal pathogens in vitro (Fusarium verticillioides, and Verticillium dahliae) and in planta (Alternaria alternata) [62]
trnI/trnA 5′psbA/3′psbA PelB1, PelD2 ~2.42 units mg−1 FW Resistance against Erwinia soft rot [63]
trnI/trnA 5′psbA/3′ RC1011, PG12 17–38% TSP Resistance to Erwinia soft rot and tobacco mosaic virus [64]
trnI/trnA 5′psbA/3′psbA Pta 7.1–9.2% TSP Broad-spectrum resistance against viral/bacterial/phloem-feeding insects [51]
trnI/trnA 5′psbA/3′psbA Bgl-1 >160-fold enzyme Resistance against whitefly and aphid [65]