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Table 2 Arabidopsis and barley flower stage reference guide, showing flower stage in relation to anther/pollen development

From: Non-destructive determination of floral staging in cereals using X-ray micro computed tomography (µCT)

Arabidopsis flower stage Anther/pollen development Barley flower stage Anther/pollen development
8 Sporogenous cells and three anther cell layers Spike 0–1 cm
Zadoks stage 31
Sporogenous cells and three anther cell layers
9 Four anther cell layers, pollen mother cell formed and undergo meiosis Spike 1–2 cm
Zadoks stage 32
Four anther cell layers, pollen mother cells formed
10 Pollen mother cell meiosis completed, and single microspores released from the tetrad Spike 2–3 cm
Zadoks stage 33
Pollen mother cell meiosis
Spike 3-4 cm
Zadoks stage 33.5
Released single microspores from tetrad
11 Single microspores and tapetum undergoes degeneration Spikes 4–5 cm
Zadoks stage 34
Single microspores and middle layer undergoes crushing
Spikes 5–6 cm
Zadoks stage 35–37
Vacuolated microspores. Tapetum degenerating
12 Pollen mitosis I, and tapetum degeneration almost completed LFE1
Spikes 6–8 cm
Tapetum degeneration finished. Pollen mitosis I begins
LFE2
Spikes ~9–10 cm
Pollen mitosis I completed
13 Binuclear pollen. Pollen mitosis II occurs, forming tri-nucleated pollen LFE3
Spikes ~9–10 cm
Binuclear pollen. Pollen mitosis II occurs.
LFE4
Spikes ~9–10 cm
Tri-nucleated pollen and anthesis taking place
  1. Table based on staging by [5, 3032]