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Table 4 Sources and outcomes of potential biases in the use of fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphisms

From: Biases underlying species detection using fluorescent amplified-fragment length polymorphisms yielded from roots

Stage of work stream Potential source of bias Outcome
DNA extraction Tissue DNA yield is higher for leaves than roots
Species DNA yield differs across species
Storage A single freeze–thaw reduces DNA yield
DNA amplification Species Some species amplify better than others. Their amplification efficiency also depends on the target region
DNA concentration There is a weak positive relationship between DNA concentration and amplification efficiency. Some fragments are not detected at low DNA concentrations; detection thresholds depend on target region
Fragment size Depending on target region, detection of smaller fragments tends to be more successful than for large fragments (>600 bp)