Leaf angle distribution of a sugar beet sample. Leaf angle distributions of sugar beet populations: (A) frequency of zenith angles; (B) combined zenith and azimuth angles in a 2-d histogram plot for a single image of Berenika (May 30/ N+), the example given in Figure 3. Curvature flow smoothing has been applied on the 3-d data. In this representation the azimuth angles θ= 0°, 90°, 180° and 270° correspond to the cardinal points North, East, South and West. (C) compares state effects (date of measurement) and cultivar effects, each diagram representing the average of 2 repetitions and 2 different nitrogen treatments: As indicated by the overall averages (right), the growth state differences are most obviously reflected in the location and center of the azimuth distribution. (All images have been generated with an extra visualization tool).