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Table 2 Tentative identification of photoisomerised isomers after illumination of all-trans standards

From: A rapid and sensitive method for determination of carotenoids in plant tissues by high performance liquid chromatography

S. no. Compound RT (min) λ (nm) found λ (nm) reported Q ratio found Q ratio reported %III/II Ref.
1 9-cis-neoxanthin 3.78 328.0,(418.0),439.0, 468.0 327.0,416.0, 439.0, 468.0 0.13 0.16 55.55 [20]
2 Phytoene isomer 1 3.89 277.0      
3 Phytoene isomer 2 4.18 265.0, 272.0     19.08  
4 13-cis or 13′-cis-Lutein 5.00 330.0,(420.0),441.0, 466.0 332.0,416.0, 440.0, 468.0 0.39 0.39 23.07 [21]
5 Phytoene isomer 3 5.02 270.0      
6 9-cis-violaxanthin 5.03 327.0, 412.0, 435.0, 464.0 328.0,412.0, 436.0, 464.0 0.12 0.11 87.5 [22]
7 15-cis zeaxanthin 5.25 335.0, (422.0), 447.0, 470.0 338.0,422.0, 446.0, 470.0 0.48 0.45   [23]
8 13-cis zeaxanthin 5.49 337.0, (422.0), 444.0, 469.0 338.0,424.0, 446.0, 472.0 0.43 0.37 8.69 [23]
9 9-cis-antheraxanthin 5.68 330.0, (419.0), 442.0, 469.0 332.0,440.0, 468.0 0.13 0.09 5.33 [24]
10 Phytoene isomer 5.88 (276.0), 286.0, (298.0)      
11 9-cis or 9′-cis-Lutein 6.18 333.0, (419.0), 440.0, 468.0 332.0,416.0, 440.0, 470.0 0.08 0.13 64.70 [21]
12 9′-cis-antheraxanthin 6.29 330.0, (419.0), 441.0, 468.0 332.0,440.0, 468.0 0.07 0.08 53.57 [24]
13 13-cis-β-cryptoxanthin 6.73 336.0, (421.0), 449.0, 473.0   0.25    
14 9-cis-zeaxanthin 7.02 341.0, (422.0), 446.0, 473.0 338.0,422.0, 446.0, 474.0 0.11 0.12 36.36 [23]
15 13′-cis β-cryptoxanthin 7.08 336.0, (418.0), 444.0, 469.0 336.0,415.0, 443.0, 470.0 0.43 0.47 10.43 [25]
16 15,9′-cis-phytofluene 7.81 332.0, 348.0, 367.0 330.0, 347.0, 366.0    71.42 [26]
17 Phytofluene isomer 1 8.08 332.0, 348.0, 367.0     82.92  
18 13-cis-α-carotene 8.19 331.0, 418.0, 440.0, 466.0 330.0,417.0, 438.0, 466.0 0.43 0.43 33.33 [26,27]
19 9-cis-β-cryptoxanthin 8.38 336.0, (420.0), 446.0, 473.0 339.0,418.0, 445.0, 472.0 0.10 0.16 33.33 [25]
20 13′-cis α-Carotene 8.41 329.0, 416.0, 439.0, 466.0 332.0,416.0, 438.0, 465.0 0.35 0.41 33.33 [27]
21 9′-cis β-cryptoxanthin 8.55 338.0, (421.0), 447.0, 473.0 339.0,420.0, 445.0, 472.0 0.08 0.13 36.36 [25]
22 15-cis β-carotene 8.80 338.0, (420.0), 444.0, 468.0 337.0,420.0, 444.0, 470.0 0.42 0.41   [10]
23 9,15,9′ cis-ζ-carotene 8.90 295.0, 378.0, 397.0, 423.0 296.0, 377.0, 399.0, 424.0 0.34 0.24 76.92 [28]
24 ζ-carotene isomer 1 9.10 296.0, 375.0, 395.0, 420.0 276.0, 375.0, 395.0, 420.0 0.25 0.23 86.30 [28]
25 9-cis α-carotene 9.24 330.0, 419.0, 441.0, 469.0 330.0,418.0, 441.0, 467.0 0.08 0.1 90.90 [26,27]
26 δ-carotene isomer 1 9.60 345.0, 425.0, 450.0, 480.0   0.48   53.12  
27 9′-cis α-Carotene 9.71 330.0, 421.0, 442.0, 469.0 330.0,421.0, 441.0, 469.0 0.12 0.08 50.00 [27]
28 δ-carotene isomer 2 9.75 345.0, 428.0, 453.0, 483.0 349.0, 430.0, 453.0, 482.0 0.54 0.42 42.85 [20]
29 ζ-carotene isomer 2 9.84 379.0, 401.0, 426.0 380.0, 401.0, 426.0    112.90 [28]
30 9-cis-β-carotene 9.97 346.0, (420.0), 447.0, 473.0 335.0, 421.0, 447.0, 472.0 0.10 0.09 31.80 [20,29]
31 Cis γ-carotene 1 10.18 348.0, 432.0, 454.0, 481.0   0.44   15.38  
32 δ-carotene isomer 3 10.27 426.0, 451.0, 481.0     71.42  
33 15-cis-neurosporene 10.46 330.0, 412.0, 435.0, 463.0 464.0 0.47 0.48 59.09 [30]
34 δ-carotene isomer 4 10.58 346.0, 425.0, 450.0, 480.0   0.39   64.51  
35 Cis γ-carotene 2 11.00 348.0, 433.0, 455.0, 486.0   0.20   40.00  
36 13-cis-neurosporene 11.20 330.0, 412.0, 434.0, 462.0 461.0 0.18 0.11 79.16 [30]
37 di-cis-lycopene 1 11.20 434.0, 457.0, 488.0 350.0, 458.0    57.0 [19]
38 di-cis-lycopene 2 12.10 460.0, 488.0 350.0, 464.0, 488.0 0.25   12.5 [19]
39 δ-carotene-isomer 5 12.14 428.0, 453.0, 484.0     73.07  
40 15-cis-lycopene 12.51 361.0, 440.0, 467.0, 495.0 360.0, 437.0, 466.0, 494.0 0.57 0.75 18.75 [19]
41 13-cis-lycopene 12.83 361.0, 442.0, 465.0, 495.0 360.0, 437.0, 463.0, 494.0 0.58 0.55 35.71 [31]
42 9-cis-lycopene 13.64 440.0, 467.0, 497.0 360.0, 438.0, 464.0, 494.0 0.27 0.13 66.66 [31]
43 di-cis-lycopene 3 14.19 446.0, 472.0, 503.0 446.0, 472.0, 503.0 0.15 0.08 70.58 [31]
44 5-cis-lycopene 15.08 446.0, 472.0, 503.0 362.0, 442.0, 470.0, 502.0   0.06 74.28 [31]
  1. Parentheses indicate a shoulder.
  2. Q-ratio is the height ratio of the cis-peak to the main absorption peak.
  3. %III/II represents the ratio of peak heights from the trough between peak II and III.