An outline of inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP). Retrotransposons are in a) head-to-head, b) tail-to-tail or c) head-to-tail orientation. In the case of a) and b) only one primer is needed for a successful amplification while for the orientation illustrated in c) primer pairs are needed to generate banding patterns. d) The retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP) technique, where amplification takes place between a LTR retrotransposon and an adjacent microsatellite region. Red boxes indicate LTR motifs, internal domains are represented by grey boxes, and dashed lines show intervening genomic DNA. Color arrows designate primers, while the purple wavy box indicates a microsatellite region.