Effect of SEM processing on morphology of A. thaliana leaf epidermal cells. A, FAA fixation; B; Glutaraldehyde fixation; C, 70% ethanol fixation; D, methanol fixation followed by critical point drying in methanol; E, 100% ethanol fixation; and F, methanol fixation followed by ethanol dehydration and critical point drying in ethanol (details in text). Acetone fixation followed by ethanol dehydration showed similar preservation of morphology to 100% ethanol fixation. Stars indicate partial cell collapse, black arrowheads show cell wall folding and white arrowheads indicate cell wall wrinkles. s = stomata. All images are at the same magnification. Scale bar = 20 μm, shown in F.