Experimental setups and the procedure of leaf growth and movement analysis. (a) SLR Cameras are mounted to an aluminium frame inside a growth cabinet, IR illumination is provided from LED lights (far left and far right). (b) The camera frame is suspended above a tray containing randomised plants. (c) Image J plugins (File S1) allow tracking of the leaf tip throughout a virtual image stack, save the coordinates and project the trajectory. (d) The distance in mm from the leaf tip to the rosette centre is calculated, averaged and plotted against time. A best fit 2° polynomial regression line (red) is fitted to individual leaf curves and subtracted from the data. (e) The result is the residual from the regression line, here depicted as raw projected oscillations. Note: Originally decreasing distance between tip and centre indicated upward leaf movement. For clarity the residual projected oscillations were inverted to allow maximum upright leaf position to correspond to maximum peak height. (f) Harmonic noise is removed from individual leaf growth movement plots using wavelet analysis resulting in smoothed projected leaf oscillation curves. All data represent averages of 10 leaves: For 5 plants, 2 leaves per plant were tracked and the analysis was performed with these 10 leaves ( n = 10 ). Because of the high density, the SE’s were plotted for each data point and depicted as shading.