Effect of Bradysia feeding on Arabidopsis seedling growth in potting mix. (A) Developing Arabidopsis seedlings challenged by root herbivore feeding were noticeably stunted in growth. (B) Ten and 14-day-old Arabidopsis seedlings treated with ten Bradysia larvae were significantly reduced in plant biomass. Values represent averages ± standard error. Letters indicate significant differences between seedling ages and treatments (one-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD on log(x) transformed data, n = 8-10, P < 0.0001).