Roots of aeroponically-grown Arabidopsis with and without feeding damage by Bradysia larvae. (A-D) Undamaged roots of eight-week-old Arabidopsis grown in aeroponic culture. Primary and secondary roots and root tips (D) are shown. (E-H) Roots damaged by feeding of 200 to 300 Bradysia larvae over four days. (E-G) Larvae chewed and stripped away the root epidermis and the cortex but avoided feeding on the vascular tissue (arrows). (H) Feeding damage of root hairs and root tips (rh, root hairs). Scale bar: 500 μm.