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Table 1 Summary of main parameters reported for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat.

From: Review of methodologies and a protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat

Wheat variety (S – spring) (W – winter) Explant type Embryo Axis removed Agrobacterium strain (binary vector) Inoculation (Co-culture) *rt – room temp Control of Agrobacterium cells Plant selective agent Transformation Freq. (%) No of plants reported Refs
Bobwhite (S) IE (age NS*); 1–6 d PCIE; 10–25 d EC NS* C58-ABI (pMON18365) 3 h, 23–25°C (2–3 d, 24–26°C) Carbenicillin (250 mg/l) G418 1.4–4.3 >100 [17]
Bobwhite (S) 4 d PCIE NS* C58-ABI (pMON30139 and others) 15–30 min, 23–25°C (2–3 d, 23–25°C) Carbenicillin (250–500 mg/l) Glyphosate 4.4 3354 [16]
Bobwhite (S) 1–6 d PCIE; 8–30 d EC NS* C58-ABI (pMON18365) 5–60 min, 23–26°C (2–3 d, 24–26°C) Carbenicillin (250 mg/l) G418 Paromomycin Glyphosate 4.8–19 154 [18]
Bobwhite (S) 3–6 PCIE NS* C58C1 (pPTN155) 45 min – 3 h, 25°C (1–3 d, 25°C) Ticarcillium; Vancomycin Cefatoxin; (50 mg/l) G418 0.5–1.5 13 [15]
Cadenza (S) Florida (W) 0–72 h IE Yes AGL1 (pAL154/156) 15 min-5 h, rt* (1–5 d, 24–25°C rt*) Timentin (160 mg/l) PPT (L-Phosphinothricin) 0.3–3.3 44 [21]
Fielder (S) 6–9 d PCIE Yes AGL0 (pBGX1) 30–60 min rt* (2–3 d, 23–24°C) Timentin (150 mg/l) GFP, Bialaphos 1.8 4 [19]
Veery-5 (S) 14 d EC Yes LBA4404 (pHK21) 15 min at rt* (1 d 27°C, 2 d 22°C) Timentin (150 mg/l) Glufosinate ammonium 1.2–3.9 17 [20]
Vesna (S) IE (age NS*) NS* LBA4404 (pTOK233) AGL1 (pDM805) 15–30 min, (3 d, 27°C) Cefotaxime (300 mg/l) PPT (L-Phosphinothricin) 0.13–0.41 6 [45]
Various Chinese varieties (NS*) EC (age NS*) NS* AGL1 (pUNN-2) 30–60 min (2 d, 28°C) Timentin (150 mg/l) Paromomycin 3.7–5.9 44 [46]
  1. IE – freshly isolated immature embryos; PCIE – pre-cultured immature embryos; EC – embryogenic callus; *NS not specified.